6.4: Southern Europe

Southern Europe includes three large peninsulas that extend into the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Iberian Peninsula consists of Spain and Portugal. The Pyrenees mountain range separates the Iberian Peninsula from France.

Iberian Peninsula

Greece, the most southern country on the Balkan Peninsula, includes hundreds of surrounding islands and the large island of Crete.

The Italian Peninsula is the shape of a boot with the Apennine Mountains running down its center. Italy also includes the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. Technically, the island country of Cyprus is also included in southern Europe.

European Ministates
European Ministates

There are five ministates in this region. The small island of Malta is located to the south of Sicily and is an independent country. Monaco, San Marino, Andorra, and Vatican City are also independent states located within the region.

Optional video: Rick Steves’ Europe: Little Europe: Five Micro-Countries

Southern Europe’s type C climate, moderated by the water that surrounds it, is often referred to as a Mediterranean climate, which has mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers.

Optional video: GeoDiode: Mediterranean – Secrets of World Climate, Episode 6

Let’s take a look at some of the countries in this region!

Key Takeaways:

✎ Southern Europe includes three large peninsulas that extend into the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
✎ There are five ministates in Southern Europe.
✎ Southern Europe’s climate is known as a Mediterranean climate.

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Next: Spain and Portugal

Image and additional information credits:

Spain and Portugal map
By derivative work Виктор_В – File:Spain location map.svg by NordNordWestSRTM30ETOPO1, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11315219
Balkan Peninsula
By Aplaice – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=86922815
Ministates map
By Paasikivi – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=53121624

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